Rural wastewater treatment mainly consists of a partial treatment through a septic tank. However, most wastewater is directly discharged to nearby lands and water bodies, resulting in land and water pollution. Integrated decentralised wastewater systems treat and dispose of small volumes of wastewater from single households, thus improving water quality.
- Women's empowerment is critical not only for the well-being of individuals and families but also for overall economic productivity. Encouraging work from home facilities and part-time jobs can enable many rural women to take up jobs.
- Conversion of agricultural land to housing land has a negative impact on the local environment, resulting in land degradation, increased flooding, and a modified climate regime.
Deforestation can be reduced by expanding and protecting forest land. Managing existing planted forests to meet wood demand reduces pressure on natural forests. Harmful practices like bush burning, overgrazing should be avoided. The burning of crop residue contributes indirectly to the increased ozone pollution and affects the soil’s quality.
Improving groundwater quality: Proper disposal of agricultural by-products like pesticides and nitrates, chemical pollution from local industry is essential to prevent water pollution. Improper sanitation, sewage mixing causes shallow water pollution. The release of Fluorine and Arsenic formed by the interaction of rocks causes groundwater pollution. Treatment of water by using Nalgonda technique to decrease fluoride and integrated waste management at the community level. A Gujarat village uses more advanced methods like reverse osmosis technology for treating drinking water.
The way forward:
Pollution is a problem that crosses borders. It has no boundaries and engulfs everything, and requires effective control. Pollution from rural areas is transported into cities (and vice versa), where it accounts for a sizable portion of pollution, making coordination of urban-rural and interstate responses critical. A dense network of air quality stations in rural India is required through a public-private partnership scheme.
Nonetheless, we can accomplish this by installing low-cost monitors and collecting data on a cloud network. Authorities must devise effective pollution-reduction plans. They must also ensure that the programs are implemented and run successfully. Only then will we be able to sustain and control overall pollution and thus achieve the essence of a pollution-free India.